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高中英语阅读理解题解题技巧

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  对阅读理解能力的测试是高考英语考试中必不可少的测试项目,主要考查学生对于不同体裁或不同题材语言材料的理解能力,以及通过材料的阅读,对材料中信息的捕获能力。英语阅读理解题的难度在不断增大,考生们也大多知难而进,下面,好好学习网与大家分享解题技巧。
  一、四选一型阅读
  高考阅读不同文体按照题型分类主要分为五大类:细节题、推理题、主旨大意题、词义句意猜测题、结构顺序题。
  1、细节题解题技巧
  细节题,顾名思义,就是指针对文章的某个细节而设置的试题。细节题的命题方法很多,如可能是对某个细节用同义结构转换后进行考查、也可能是将文章中的几个细节(通常是四个)放在一起要求考生判断是非(选出正确的一项或选出错误的一项)或对几个细节进行排序等。解答这类试题时,一个常用的方法就是运用定位法,即根据题干或选项中的线索词从原文中找到相关的句子,与选项进行比较从而确定答案(此时要特别注意一些常见的同义转换)。
  现在围绕上述的定位理论,引申出几个小的技巧:
  (1) 关键信息定位法。这个主要是细节题,如涉及到数字(日期、时间、价格等),就可以在文章中快速圈出数字,再找出目标数字及相对应的细节作息,还有人物姓名、地点名词等等,其他的还包括一些提示情节发展,或条纲性关键字眼,如First, Next, Finally等等。
  As a young girl growing up in the 1930s, I always wanted to fly a plane, but back then it was almost unheard of for a woman to do that. I got a taste of that dream in 2011,when my husband arranged for me to ride in a hot air balloon for my birthday. (2011年高考英语北京A篇)
  What happened to the author in 2011?
  A. She flew an airplane
  B. She entered a competition
  C. She went on a hot air balloon ride
  D. She moved into a retirement community
  解析:此题属典型细节题,通过题干中的时间in 2011不难定位到文中粗体字部分,很容易可以锁定正解为C。
  (2) 同义定位法。英文中可以用Paraphrase表示。同义定位就是指问题所用的关键词和文中的不一致,但属于同义性质,同义转换其实是在关键间的基础上拐了个弯。
  He longs for conversations with an editor who will help him turn his good ideas into great ones. He wants someone to get excited about what he's doing and to help him turn his story idea upside down and inside out, exploring the best ways to report it. He wants to be more valuable for your paper. (2010年高考英语北京B篇)
  What does the reporter want most from his editors in their talks?
  A. Finding the news value of his stories.
  B. Giving him financial support.
  C. Helping him to find issues.
  D. Improving his good ideas.
  解析:此题属细节题,定位方式为同义定位法。题干中的talks和文章中conversations对应,而want most和longs for对应,这样不难得出答案为D。
  小结:在阅读中,精准快速的定位加上正确的理解力才能保证做题的量与质。定位法是需要在做题的过程中有意识的培养的,做题的技巧也是可以总结的,关键是要自觉培养这种分析归纳和总结的意识以及能力。
  2、推理题解题技巧
  推断题定义:在理解原文字面意思的基础上,通过对语篇逻辑关系的分析和细节的暗示,做出一定的判断和推理,从而得到文章的深层意义及隐含意义的过程。
  出现特征:在考题中经常出现的词有infer, imply, indicate, conclude, learn from, probably, most likely, prove /according to等。
  She turned up at the doorstep of my house in Cornwall. No way could I have sent her away. No way, not me anyway. Maybe someone had kicked her out of their car the night before. “We're moving house.'; “No space for her any more with the baby coming.” “We never really wanted her, but what could we have done? She was a present.” People find all sorts of excuses for abandoning an animal. And she was one of the most beautiful dogs I had ever seen.
  How did the author feel about Goldie when Goldie came to the house? (2010年高考英语北京A篇)
  A. Shocked. B. Sympathetic. C. Annoyed. D. Upset.
  解析:由题目得知:是考察作者的态度题。首先定位到文章作者的话语和行为,即
  (1) No way could I have sent her away. No way, not me anyway.
  (2) We never really wanted her, but what could we have done? She was a present.“
  (3) People find all sorts of excuses for abandoning an animal. And she was one of the most beautiful dogs I had ever seen.
  可知作者对它是正的情感,排除C,D.再由作者对它的不舍,答案选B
  3、主旨大意题解题技巧
  Topic/Title型-使用逆推法
  (1) 要在阅读原文基础上,仔细考虑选项是否与文章主题有密切联系
  (2) 再看选项对文章的概括性或覆盖面如何
  (3) 要注意题目是否过大或者过小
  (4) 要避免下列三种错误
  概括不够(多表现为部分代整体,导致范围过小)
  过度概括(多表现为扩大范围)
  以事实、细节代替抽象概括的大意。
  Federal regulators Wednesday approved a plan to create a nationwide emergency alert (警报) system using text messages delivered to cell phones.
  Text messages have been popular in recent years, particularly among young people. The wireless industry's trade association, CTIA, estimates(估计) more than 48 billion text messages are sent each month.
  The plan comes from the Warning Alert and Response Network Act, a 2006 federal law that requires improvements to the nation's emergency alert system. The act tasked the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) with coming up with new ways to alert the public about emergencies.
  “The ability to deliver accurate and timely warnings and alerts through cell phones and other mobile services is an important next step in our efforts to help ensure that the American public has the information they need to take action to protect themselves and their families before, and during, disasters and other emergencies,” FCC Chairman Kevin Martin said, following approval of the plan.
  Participation in the alert system by carriers -telecommunications companies is voluntary, but it has received support from the wireless industry.
  The program would be optional for cell phone users. They also may not be charged for receiving alerts.
  There would be three different types of messages, according to the rules.
  The first would be a national alert from the president, likely involving a natural disaster. The second would involve “approaching threats”, which could include natural disasters like hurricanes or storms or even university shootings. The third would be for child abduction (绑架) emergencies, or so-called Amber Alerts.
  The service could be in place by 2010.( 2008年高考英语山东卷B篇)
  66. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
  A. Cell Phone Alerts Protecting Students
  B. Cell Phone Alerts by Wireless Industry
  C. Cell Phone Alerts of National Disasters
  D. Cell Phone Alerts Coming Soon
  解析:D。主旨大意题。第一段开门见山,提出将创建一个全国性的短信警报系统;最后一段重申主题,对这种新系统的未来进行展望。因此最准确的标题是D。A项错在protecting students;B项错在by wireless industry;C项错在National Disasters。
  4、词义句意题解题技巧
  要求考生通过阅读上下文,结合中学生应有的赏识来推测尚不熟悉的词或者词组的意思。出现特征:划线或者引号
  解题方法之一:根据上下文,往往是本句中的同位关系进行猜测。
  Weeks later, standing before this unfriendly mass, I was totally lost. Oh well, I lowered the paper and sat down at my desk, burning to find out what I had done wrong. As a classmate began his report, it all became clear, “My report is on George Washington, the man who started the American Revolution.” The whole world became quite! How could I know that she meant that George Washington?
  62. The underlined word “burning” in Para. 3 probably means _______.(2012年北京,B篇,62,答案D)
  A. annoyed B. ashamed C. ready D. eager
  解析:从burning这个词来说,意为“发热的,强烈的,燃烧的”,后面紧跟动词词组“find out”说明在寻找时刻的心情是很紧张和急迫的,最后是一个宾语从句,是我曾经做错过什么,那么这个题目显然就是选择和“渴望的,热切的”词义,显然为D选项。
  5、结构顺序题解题技巧
  常见提问方式:
  How is the passage organized?
  Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?
  The author develops the passage mainly by….
  解题思路:
  (1) 注意主题段。主题段通常在文章的开头,简要概括文章的中心思想,
  (2) 找出或者总结每段的主题句。主题句可能在段落的开头,也可能出现在段落的中间或末尾。如何确定主题句的方法见主旨题之main idea型。
  (3) 最后根据每段主题确定段与段之间的结构关系,承上启下,使文章行文连贯,逻辑严密。为突出主题,作者可能采用不同的写作手法来组织文章,通过举例、比较、类比等手法来透彻阐明主题观点。
  The Diet Zone: A Dangerous Place
  Diet Coke, diet Pepsi, diet pills, no-fat diet, vegetable diet… We are surrounded by the word “diet” everywhere we look and listen. We have so easily been attracted by the promise and potential of diet products that we have stopped thinking about what diet products are doing to us. We are paying for products that harm us psychologically and physically(身体上).
  Diet products significantly weaken us psychologically. On one level, we are not allowing our brain to admit that our weight problems lie not in actually losing the weight, but in controlling the consumption of fatty, high-calorie, unhealthy foods. Diet products allow us to jump over the thinking stage and go straight for the scale(秤)instead. All we have to do is to swallow or recognize the word “diet” in food labels.
  On another level, diet products have greater psychological effects. Every time we have a zero-calorie drink, we are telling ourselves without our awareness that we don't have to work to get results. Diet products make people believe that gain comes without pain, and that life can be without resistance and struggle.
  The danger of diet products lies not only in the psychological effects they have on us, but also in the physical harm that they cause. Diet foods can indirectly harm our bodies because consuming them instead of healthy foods means we are preventing our bodies from having basic nutrients(营养成分). Diet foods and diet pills contain zero calories only because the diet industry has created chemicals to produce these wonder products. Diet products may not be nutritional, and the chemical that go into diet products are potentially dangerous.
  Now that we are aware of the effects that diet products have on us, it is time to seriously think about buying them. Losing weight lies in the power of minds, not in the power of chemicals. Once we realize this, we will be much better able to resist diet products, and therefore prevent the psychological harm that comes from using them. (2008高考英语北京卷E篇)
  75. Which of the following shows the structure of the passage?
题目

题目
 
  解析:文章第一段点明节食产品在误导人们;第二段说明节食产品对人们心理上的影响;第三段说明节食产品误导人们认为不费劲就可以减肥,即对人们身体上的危害;第四段说明节食产品的危害;第五段说明人们应该慎重对待节食产品,故从文章结构上看应该是B项正确。


  二、七选五型阅读
  考生需要在语篇信息存在缺失的情况下,准确理解整篇文章,特别是设题部位前后句的逻辑关系,通过上下文的线索进行判断,预测下文,然后做出正确判断。
  命题分析:我们如果把整篇文章看成一个信息群,这个信息群实际上是由两大信息版块构成的:
  已知信息:原文在五处空缺之外的没有被挖掉的信息
  待选信息:七个待选选项中的信息
  这两个信息板块间绝不是孤立的,而是有紧密的互动逻辑关系,连起来是一篇完整的文章。
  考试题型对学生的考察能力来看无外乎两个方面:
  (1) 把握整篇文章的布局和逻辑层次关系
  (2) 把握微观信息间关联性(即空格前后句间关系)
  解题方法:词汇同现、词汇复现、代词妙用、数字线索、逻辑线索。
  Muzak
  The next time you go into a bank, a store, or a supermarket, stop and listen. What do you hear? _____ (71) It's similar to the music you listen to, but it's not exactly the same. That's because this music was especially designed to relax you, or to give you extra energy. Sometimes you don't even realize the music is playing, but you react to the music anyway.
  Quiet background music used to be called “elevator (电梯) music” because we often heard it in elevators. But lately we hear it in more and more places, and it has a new name “Muzak”. About one-third of the people in America listen to “Muzak” everyday. The music plays for 15 minutes at a time, with short pauses in between. It is always more lively between ten and eleven in the morning, and between three and four in the afternoon, when people are more tired.______ (72)
  If you listen to Muzak carefully, you will probably recognize the names of many of the songs. Some musicians or songwriters don't want their songs to be used as Muzak, but others are happy when their songs are chosen. Why? _____ (73)
  Music is often played in public places because it is designed to make people feel less lonely when they are in an airport or a hotel. It has been proven that Muzak does what it is designed to do. Tired office workers suddenly have more energy when they hear the pleasant sound of Muzak in the background. _____ (74)Supermarket shoppers buy 38 percent more groceries.
  _____ (75)They say it's boring to hear the same songs all the time. But other people enjoy hearing Muzak in public places. They say it helps them relax and feel calm. One way or another, Muzak affects everyone. Some farmers even say their cows give more milk when they hear Muzak!(  2010年高考英语北京卷)
  A. Some people don't like Muzak.
  B. The music gives them extra energy.
  C. Music is playing in the background.
  D. Factory workers produce 13 percent more.
  E. Muzak tends to help people understand music better.
  F. They ge t as much as $4 million a year if their songs are used.
  G. Muzak is played in most of the big supermarkets in the world.
  答案:CBFDA
  代词妙用:代词指代前面提到的thing, 所以只要找到与代词含义一致的词就可搞定。
  71空格后面出现“It's similar to the music you listen to,”那么我们只要分析出其中的“it”的具体指代即可,通过题目及略读下文,我们很容易知道该文介绍一种音乐,而且第一段故作悬念,一直未给出其名字,所以我们只要找到选项中包含音乐一词而没有点名缪扎克一词的即可,很容易锁定BC选项,因为B项意义与下文相去甚远,故舍B取C没商量。
  75空格后出现“They say it's boring to hear the same songs all the time.”,同理,我们就要确定“they”的具体指代,首先由于“say”的出现,我们锁定“they”为人的复数,所以轻松锁定ADF,所谓真金不怕火来炼,D显然逻辑不通,F由于其主语也为人,段落第一句永远不会出现意思不明的代词(we, you 除外,因为它们可以明确指代广义的人),故轻松排除F选出真金A。
  72此题虽然不是明显的后文出现代词,但其前亦有代词出现,“It is always more lively between ten and eleven in the morning,”下文承接上文,肯定有联系,找出“it”的具体指代-the music, 轻松选出B项。(注:也可应用词汇复现法)
  词汇复现法:情非得已时选择的一种方法,知道与前后文中有词汇重复的选项即可,有时也可指含义一致的词汇,如72
  73前文中“but others are happy when their songs are chosen”有“their songs”, F项亦有相同词汇出现,放进去,意思通晓明白,搞定。
  74后文中“Supermarket shoppers buy 38 percent more groceries.有”percent more“,D项亦有相同词汇出现,且意思连贯,选出即可。
  72题中前句中出现”when people are more tired. “能够与”tired“相对应的四选项中只有”energy“,累了对应能量,亦可做出此题。

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